Deployment on Amazon EKS

An example of a local deployment on Amazon EKS is provided here. Clone this repository and modify the files at your convenience. In the repository, as in a standard Terraform module, you will find the following files:

  • - declaration of the Terraform providers used in this project;

  • - local variables used by the DevOps Stack modules;

  • - definition of all the deployed modules;

  • - creation of the IAM policy, assumable role and bucket used by Loki;

  • - creation of the IAM policy, assumable role and bucket used by Thanos;

  • - creation of the required resources as well as the DevOps Stack modules needed for the CSI drivers of the cluster;

  • - the output variables of the DevOps Stack;


On your local machine, you need to have the following tools installed:

  • Terraform to provision the whole stack;

  • kubectl or k9sto interact with your cluster;

  • AWS CLI to interact with your AWS account;

  • gopass and summon to easily pass the IAM secrets as environment variables when running terraform commands;

Other than that, you will require the following:

  • an AWS account;

  • an AWS IAM key with at least the …​ …​ …​

  • a Route 53 zone;

Specificities and explanations


Check this blog post for more information on how to configure gopass and summon to work together.

For simplicity and ease of use, as well as security, the example uses gopass and summon to pass the IAM credentials to the Terraform commands. The secrets.yml file contains the path to the the secret values on the gopass password store. On execution, the summon command will then read the secrets.yml file and pass the credentials as environment variables to the Terraform commands.

The commands presented on this tutorial all use the summon command.

The environment variable AWS_DEFAULT_REGION defines where all the AWS resources created by Terraform will reside, including the EKS cluster.

Remote Terraform state

If you do not want to configure the remote Terraform state backend, you can simply remove the backend block from the file.

More information about the remote backends is available on the official documentation.

OIDC authentication

The DevOps Stack modules are developed with OIDC in mind. In production, you should have an identity provider that supports OIDC and use it to authenticate to the DevOps Stack applications.

In this example, we use the Amazon EKS OIDC provider. We provide a module that takes in a Cognito pool ID and its domain to provide you with the required configuration to deploy the DevOps Stack applications.

This assumes that you have created a Cognito pool yourself, however you can use our module to also create the pool and populate it with users, as shown in the example.

Check the AWS Cognito OIDC usage documentation for more information on how to use it.

The user_map variable of that module allows you to create OIDC users used to authenticate to the DevOps Stack applications. You should receive an e-mail from AWS with a temporary password to login for the first time.

Let’s Encrypt SSL certificates

By default, to avoid rate-limiting your domain by Let’s Encrypt, the example uses the letsencrypt-staging configuration of the cert-manager module to generate certificates. This uses the Let’s Encrypt staging environment which has an invalid CA certificate.

If you feel ready to test with production certificates, you can simply edit the file and change the cluster_issuer variable to letsencrypt-prod.


  1. Clone the repository and cd into the examples/eks folder;

  2. Adapt the secrets.yml file to point to the correct path on your gopass password store;

  3. Check out the modules you want to deploy in the file, and comment out the others;

    You can also add your own Terraform modules in this file or any other file on the root folder. A good place to start to write your own module is to clone the devops-stack-module-template repository and adapt it to your needs.
  4. On the oidc module, adapt the user_map variable as you wish (please check the OIDC section for more information).

  5. From the source of the example deployment, initialize the Terraform modules and providers:

    summon terraform init
  6. Configure the variables in to your preference:

    The cluster_name and vpc_cidr must be unique for each DevOps Stack deployment in a single AWS account and the base_domain must match a Route 53 zone in that same account.
    The cluster module documentation can help you know what to put in the kubernetes_version, for example.
    locals {
      kubernetes_version       = "1.29"
      cluster_name             = "YOUR_CLUSTER_NAME" # Must be unique for each DevOps Stack deployment in a single AWS account. Contains only alphanumeric and hyphens.
      base_domain              = ""  # Must match a Route 53 zone in the AWS account where you are deploying the DevOps Stack.
      subdomain                = "apps"
      cluster_issuer           = module.cert-manager.cluster_issuers.staging
      letsencrypt_issuer_email = "YOUR_EMAIL_ADDRESS"
      enable_service_monitor   = false # Can be enabled after the first bootstrap.
      app_autosync             = true ? { allow_empty = false, prune = true, self_heal = true } : {}
      # The VPC CIDR must be unique for each DevOps Stack deployment in a single AWS account.
      vpc_cidr = ""
      # Automatic subnets IP range calculation, splitting the vpc_cidr above into 6 subnets.
      private_subnets_cidr = cidrsubnet(local.vpc_cidr, 1, 0)
      public_subnets_cidr  = cidrsubnet(local.vpc_cidr, 1, 1)
      private_subnets      = cidrsubnets(local.private_subnets_cidr, 2, 2, 2)
      public_subnets       = cidrsubnets(local.public_subnets_cidr, 2, 2, 2)
  7. Finally, run terraform apply and accept the proposed changes to create the Kubernetes nodes on Amazon EKS and populate them with our services;

    summon terraform apply
  8. After the first deployment (please note the troubleshooting step related with Argo CD), you can go to the and enable the ServiceMonitor boolean to activate the Prometheus exporters that will send metrics to Prometheus;

    This flag needs to be set as false for the first bootstrap of the cluster, otherwise the applications will fail to deploy while the Custom Resource Definitions of the kube-prometheus-stack are not yet created.
    You can either set the flag as true in the file or you can simply delete the line on the modules' declarations, since this variable is set as true by default on each module.
    Take note of the local called app_autosync. If you set the condition of the ternary operator to false you will disable the auto-sync for all the DevOps Stack modules. This allows you to choose when to manually sync the module on the Argo CD interface and is useful for troubleshooting purposes.

Access the cluster and the DevOps Stack applications

To access your cluster, you need to use the AWS CLI to recover a Kubeconfig you can use:

summon aws eks update-kubeconfig --name YOUR_CLUSTER_NAME --region YOUR_CLUSTER_ZONE --kubeconfig ~/.kube/NAME_TO_GIVE_YOUR_CONFIG.config

Then you can use the kubectl or k9s command to interact with the cluster:

k9s --kubeconfig ~/.kube/NAME_TO_GIVE_YOUR_CONFIG.config

As for the DevOps Stack applications, you can access them through the ingress domain that you can find in the ingress_domain output. If you used the code from the example without modifying the outputs, you will see something like this on your terminal after the terraform apply has done its job:


devops_admins = <sensitive>
ingress_domain = ""

Or you can use kubectl to get all the ingresses and their respective URLs:

kubectl get ingress --all-namespaces --kubeconfig ~/.kube/NAME_TO_GIVE_YOUR_CONFIG.config

The output devops_admins list all users and respective e-mails that were configured using the OIDC module:

summon terraform output devops_admins

Those users should have received an e-mail with a temporary password in order to login to the DevOps Stack applications for the first time.

Stop the cluster

To definitively stop the cluster on a single command (that is the reason we delete some resources from the state file), you can use the following command:

summon terraform state rm $(summon terraform state list | grep "argocd_application\|argocd_project\|kubernetes_\|helm_") && summon terraform destroy


That’s it, you now have a fully functional Kubernetes cluster in Amazon EKS with the DevOps Stack applications deployed on it. For more information, keep on reading the documentation. You can explore the possibilities of each module and get the link to the source code on their respective documentation pages.


connection_error during the first deployment

In some cases, you could encounter an error like these the first deployment:

│ Error: error while waiting for application argocd to be created
│   with module.argocd.argocd_application.this,
│   on .terraform/modules/argocd/ line 55, in resource "argocd_application" "this":
│   55: resource "argocd_application" "this" {
│ error while waiting for application argocd to be synced and healthy: rpc error: code = Unavailable desc = error reading from server: EOF

The error is due to the way we provision Argo CD on the final steps of the deployment. We use the bootstrap Argo CD to deploy the final Argo CD module, which causes a redeployment of Argo CD and consequently a momentary loss of connection between the Argo CD Terraform provider and the Argo CD server.

You can simply re-run the command summon terraform apply to finalize the bootstrap of the cluster every time you encounter this error.

Argo CD interface reload loop when clicking on login

If you encounter a loop when clicking on the login button on the Argo CD interface, you can try to delete the Argo CD server pod and let it be recreated.

For more informations about the Argo CD module, please refer to the respective documentation page.